Early Menopause Symptoms Are You Suffering From First Symptoms Of Menopause?

By Olinda Rola

Early menopause symptoms – every woman at some point in her thirties or forties will wonder if what she is experiencing is really the first symptoms of menopause. Menopause is defined as the cessation of menses or the end of menstrual cycles for a period of 12 months or more. Menopause is a natural process for a woman, not an illness. It is quite common for a womans hormone balance to begin shifting in her early thirties to forties, resulting in early menopause symptoms. Why? There are several reasons why.

Women often demand much of their bodies. Stress exists in many forms for an active, involved woman today. Women have demanding and stressful careers. Women have family responsibilities. The relationship with the spouse or partner may not be the best. Aging parents can add to the burden. These and other responsibilities add up in the toll they take on the body, health and well-being of a woman.

And at the same time, the womans body may not be getting the support it needs to function as it was designed. Obesity, lack of exercise, poor nutrition, excess caffeine and alcohol add to the problem instead of helping the body cope with what is demanded of it. This stressful lifestyle, coinciding with inadequate support given to the body, contributes to experiencing many of the early menopause symptoms.

Common first symptoms of menopause for women are:

— Irregular menstrual cycles

— Light or heavy menstrual flow

— Lumpy or tender breasts

— Fibroid tumors

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— Endometriosis

— Mood swings

— Water retention and bloating

— Sleep problems

— “Foggy, fuzzy” thinking and memory lapses

— Anxiety and depression

— Inability to handle stress


— Hot flashes and night sweats

— Vaginal dryness

— Weight gain

Then there are the hormones, the menstrual cycle and hormone production in the body. In the normal menstrual cycle and a healthy woman, estrogen is the dominant hormone that is produced for the first 10-12 days following the previous menstrual flow. Ovulation then signals the female body to produce progesterone, which happens for the next 12 days or so. If there is no pregnancy, progesterone and estrogen levels will drop at around day 28, allowing menstruation to begin.

However, if there is no ovulation, progesterone will not be produced by the body that month. This event, called an annovulatory cycle, is a typical occurance today for women in their thirties and forties – no ovulation, no progesterone. This leaves the woman with an excess of estrogen and a deficiency of the hormone progesterone.

Many women in their thirties and forties are actually having fewer ovulations which creates hormone imbalance, resulting in many of the early menopause symptoms. And once ovulation ceases at menopause, progesterone levels fall to virtually zero. At the same time, estrogen is still being produced, again leading to hormone imbalance and the resulting first symptoms of menopause. If a hysterectomy has happened, surgical menopause means the woman no longer produces progesterone.

Besides the problems created by missed ovulations or hysterectomy, excess estrogen is regularly obtained from other sources. Birth control pills, household chemicals and pesticides, certain foods that have been sprayed or given chemicals and many construction materials used in homes are all sources of estrogen which leads to excess in the body.

Doctors call this hormone imbalance condition of excess estrogen in the body “estrogen dominance”. What are the symptoms of estrogen dominance? The symptoms include low sex drive, bloating and weight gain, headaches before the menstrual period, mood swings, irregular periods and excessive menstrual bleeding. If the amount of unbalanced estrogen in the female adult increases beyond what is desirable and healthy, you will definitely experience early menopause symptoms. On the other hand, when your hormones are balanced, you feel more alert, energetic and ready to take on the challenges of life.

How can a woman tell if the first symptoms of menopause being experienced are because of hormone imbalance? An easy and effective way is to take the online test provided by a leading womens health clinic for early menopause symptoms. It takes just a few minutes and the test is free. Find out more about your health, premenopause and menopause symptoms, what the symptoms are telling you and what to do about it based on your answers to important questions. Read more about hormone imbalance, estrogen dominance symptoms, side effects of a hysterectomy and physician-recommended natural treatments for eliminating the early menopause symptoms.

Copyright 2005 InfoSearch Publishing

About the Author: Olinda Rola is President of InfoSearch Publishing and webmaster of


– a website of physician-recommended natural treatments for health problems. Visit the website and learn more about early menopause symptoms and ways for improving your health.



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Vivien Goldman: An interview with the Punk Professor

Wednesday, October 3, 2007 

Vivien Goldman recalls with a laugh the day in 1984 when she saw her death, but the laugh fades as she becomes lost in the memory. She was in Nigeria staying in Fela Kuti’s home; she had just arrived hours before and found people sleeping everywhere like house cats when Muhammadu Buhari’s army showed up to haul everyone to jail. Kuti was an opponent of the government who was in jail, and they came to arrest his coterie of supporters. They grabbed Goldman and were about to throw her in a truck until Pascal Imbert, Kuti’s manager, yelled out, “Leave her alone. She just arrived from Paris! She’s my wife! She knows nothing!

Goldman stops for a moment and then smiles plainly. “They thought I was just some stupid woman…. That time sexism worked in my favor.”

Vivien Goldman has become a living, teaching testimony of the golden era of punk and reggae. She is an adjunct professor at New York University who has taught courses on the music scene she was thrust in the middle of as a young public relations representative for Island Records. She writes a column for the BBC called “Ask the Punk Professor” where she extols the wisdom she gained as a confidant of Bob Marley; as the person who first put Flava Flav in video; as Chrissie Hynde’s former roommate; as the woman who worked with the The Clash, Sex Pistols, The Slits and The Raincoats.

As Wikinews reporter David Shankbone found out, Goldman is one of those individuals that when you sit in her presence you realize she simply can not tell you everything she knows or has seen, either to protect the living or to respect the dead.

DS: The first biography of Bob Marley, Soul Rebel, Natural Mystic, was written by you based upon your personal experiences with him, and you have recently written a book about Marley called The Book of Exodus. How difficult is it to continue to mine his life? Is it difficult to come up with new angles?

DS: You were there with Marley through that time when he really caught on; was it obvious to you then that there was something amazing and unique happening?

DS: Warhol’s Factory photographer, Billy Name, once told me he knew that what was going on was amazing, but he never thought Warhol would become the entire fabric of the art world as he is now.

DS: But Marley has become a fabric of sorts…

DS: How do you define punk?

DS: What is the commodified version of punk selling?

DS: That aesthetic is everywhere, as though if one spikes his hair he is punk.

DS: Your philosophy is that punk is not just musical, but also an aesthetic. That it can imbibe anything; that it stands for change and for changing a system. Let me give you a few names, and you to tell me how you think they are or are not punk. Britney Spears.

DS: Dick Cheney.

DS: Kanye West.

DS: Osama bin Laden.

DS: Is the definition of punk relative, then? He’s a Madrasah punk but not a Manhattan punk?

DS: Pete Doherty.

DS: If punk is about change, then why the maudlin sentimentality over the closing of CBGB’s, which at times turned into demonizing a homeless shelter?

DS: I felt it was what it was at a certain moment, but it wasn’t that anymore. They were charging eight dollars for a beer. That’s not very punk, and that wasn’t attracting the punk crowds. It was like people who move to the Bowery because they think it’s so edgy but it’s really a boulevard of glittering condos.

DS: Where do you think New York’s culture is going? There are so few places on Earth with such a large concentration of creatives who meet and influence each other, but the city is becoming less affordable and cleansed of any grit. Is there a place for punk in the Manhattan of the future?

DS: You’re friends with Flava Flav, right?

DS: At the time he wasn’t known?

DS: Do you think apathy is a problem today?

DS: What about G. G. Allin? He used to defecate on the stage to make a point.

DS: Well, he’s dead. Do you think people are afraid to speak out today?

DS: Is violence for the cause of social change punk?

DS: Sandra Bernhard once did an homage to what she called the Big-Tittied Bitches of Rock n’ Roll: Heart, Joan Jett, Stevie Nicks. She mourned that there were no big-tittied bitches left. Who are the big-tittied bitches of Rock n’ Roll today?

DS: Do you have moments of extreme self-doubt where you wonder if anything you do matters to anyone?

DS: You have worked for two corporations that are seen by many as the least punk in their respective communities, the BBC and NYU. How does one remain punk in such environments?

DS: Have you ever been in a situation where you feared for your life, where you thought, this may be the way I go?

DS: What happened to him in the secret jail?

DS: In Jamaica there was so much violence during the civil war.


The following 27 pages are in this category, out of 27 total.

Back Pain After Car Accident

By Chris Johansen

No matter how careful a driver is, accidents still happen. Regardless of who is at fault, there are repercussions that a car accident brings. Aside from the car havoc because of the collision, common personal injury to the person is also recorded. It has been said that the most common personal injuries that a person involved in a car accident experiences are whiplash or neck injury and back pain injury. These injuries normally happen after a car accident because of the unusual movement of the body due to the collision. This unusual movement could be beyond the body’s tolerance putting much pressure on the ligaments, muscles or tissues in these areas.

Back pain after car accident may be a serious problem to the person affected because it directly hits the spine which is considered to be one of the most important part of the human body frame. It is in the spine where almost all major joints are connected. It is also the spine that holds a person’s ability to stand and sit in an upright position. When back pain injury is experienced after a car accident, there would be a tendency that the person would have difficulty of moving around. Serious back pain after car accident can definitely alter a person’s life in a major way.

It is always recommended that after an accident; seek medical attention immediately to be able to know the extent of damage that the accident has caused in the person’s body. As this may be quite costly to the person especially if the injury is really serious, the person could also check if he can make a claim as part of the consequences that the accident brought. In this situation, it can be suggested to seek a legal advice at this point. Lawyers can really help the person to study the case and look for evidences that can get the person a fair enough compensation from what happened.

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In Texas, further information of their assistance can be located online at www.youraustininjurylawyer.com. In this site, the person can find useful information on getting a lawyer to get a settlement for him. Also, it states fairly clearly the benefits of having a lawyer in helping their clients with the case. Lawyers will definitely help the person understand better the law behind the claims. What is also better about their assistance is that they only get to charge their clients once they have made the settlement done. This means that their primary concern is to be of help. This also means that they will really do the best that they can to get what their clients really deserve.

If involved in an accident, the person involved does not have to bear all the consequences alone. Although it is a fact that nothing can really compensate for the injury and pain that the accident caused, it is good to know that there can be a way to minimize all the expenses incurred and to be incurred through out of court settlement or court decisions with the help of an attorney.

About the Author: Should you need a

San Antonio injury lawyer



today for a free confidential consultation about your case.



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While Buying Engagement Rings Look Every Facet Of Diamond And Its Quality

While buying engagement rings look every facet of diamond and its quality


riky sen

Since, the market is flooded with various kinds of fake and low quality of diamond, in such situation selecting and buying diamond engagement rings is not an easy task especially when you do not have much information about diamond and its quality. So in order to buy the rings, you must know something about diamond and diamond engagement rings. While searching

engagement rings

online you have to keep several things in mind and one of the most important things are 4C’s of diamond, which stand for carat, cut, clarity and color that help you in determining quality as well as price of engagement rings.

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In addition to 4C’s of diamond, you have to also keep choice, preference and likeness of your beloved because you are going to present the rings to your beloved on the day of engagement, which come once in blue moon and your aim would be to make this occasion the most memorable moment of life, which can possible when you present the ring according to preference and personality of your beloved and soon-to-be bride.

As we know that everybody have budget limitation and nobody can go beyond their limitation so if you are have planned to buy the rings, then do not forget to define your budget because money plays very important role in buying ring of your beloved choice within budget. After defining your budget must see the ring within your budget because sometimes you choose the ring but that does not suit of fit your budget which may create confusion so in order to avoid chaos must know your budget that how much you can expend for the most beautiful gift of life for highly precious life partner.

If your economic condition is not sound then you can also go with cheap diamond engagement rings but do not think that cheap engagement rings are low in quality. These rings are cheap because while buying these rings we care some important thing such as avoiding most popular shape, setting diamond and also go with less popular designer diamond engagement rings because popular designers ring are very expensive. It is correct that diamond rings can be little luxurious and expensive but still you have chance to buy engagement ring of your beloved choice within your budget simply by doing some research work and acquiring knowledge about diamond engagement rings.

Before going for final purchasing of diamond engagement rings, a buyer should go on local jewelry store so that you can get some idea about diamond engagement rings, its quality as well as prices. After knowing about diamond, you go to online jewelry store and see most of range of diamond engagement rings, which will help you in choosing diamond engagement rings within your budget and also match the choice and needs of your sweetheart. In a summary, it will help you in making your engagement occasion highly memorable and enjoyable.

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engagement rings

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Home-invaders pose as NYC police

Monday, July 16, 2007 

In two separate incidents, men posing as members of the New York Police Department (NYPD), have invaded homes in the New York City area. In both cases, they robbed the residents, but in the most recent, they sexually assaulted a woman.

On Saturday, July 14, at 1:09 a.m. EDT (UTC-4), four men knocked on the door of a Yonkers, New York, apartment. The 33-year-old male that lives there opened the door, as the men outside wore NYPD hats and t-shirts, and had badges hanging around their necks.

The men promptly ordered the male victim to the floor. “When this guy pushed me, he had a gun in my face,” the victim said. “I could see the other guy. He motioned to the others, come on, let’s go, let’s go.” The intruders shouted “Where are the drugs?” as they ransacked the apartment.

Two of the men entered the bedroom and sexually assaulted the 30-year-old female. The couple has a five-year-old child, who was sleeping in another bedroom. “The more I resisted, the more he began to hit me,” the woman said. She said she was sexually assaulted by two of the men while her boyfriend was bound and guarded.

Police said the men then left with a cell phone, a laptop computer, a diamond ring and a gold chain. Police do not believe that they were real officers. As of this afternoon, no arrests have been made.

On Thursday, July 5, shortly after six p.m. in the East New York neighborhood of Brooklyn five men knocked on the door claiming to be “the police.” When the victims opened the door, they pushed their way in demanding the family give them drugs and money.

When police responded to a call reporting a robbery, they found the family, husband, wife and their daughter, tied up. The man suffered a head injury when he was pistol-whipped. Police say the robbers got away with a camera, jewelry, and US$5,000 in currency.

Neighbors told NY1 that they were stunned. “Frightened. Make you think twice before you want to open the door, you know,” said one of the neighbors. “Now you be asking for all this ID and stuff and even still you’re going to wonder, are they for real? So it’s kind of scary.”

There is no word about whether the two cases are connected. Yonkers is on the border of New York City, but is outside the jurisdiction of the NYPD.

Left-side driving part of a planned Findlay, Ohio interchange reconfiguration

Tuesday, May 3, 2005 

The Ohio Department of Transportation (ODOT) has announced plans to rebuild the interchange of Interstate 75 (I-75) and U.S. Highway 224 (US 224) in northwestern Findlay, Ohio, signed as exit 159 on I-75. Plans for the interchange, a standard diamond interchange that also carries State Highway 15 on the west and south approaches, include reversing the flow of traffic on the bridge over I-75, in what is known as a “diverging diamond interchange”.

Such an interchange does not exist in the United States; ODOT based the plan on an interchange in Versailles, France of the same design, introduced to them by a report in a trade magazine. Instead of the standard approach, widening the four-lane bridge to add turn lanes, traffic flow will be reversed between the two sets of ramps, with traffic signals controlling the flow. The only conflicts will be between the two directions of US 224; all turns to and from the ramps will be free-flowing. Traffic will be guided by barriers and islands, preventing errors in movement. As it eliminates left turns across traffic, the accident rate at the interchange is expected to be cut in half. The plan will also be cheaper than a rebuild of the bridge, and will be able to carry more traffic.

Left-hand driving is very rare in the United States, but a few freeway-to-freeway interchanges incorporate it. In those cases, rather than being traffic-light controlled, the crossings between opposite directions are separated by bridges. Another related case is the Single Point Urban Interchange, in which opposing streams of left-turning traffic pass each other on the left.

The bridge, built in 1956, currently carries about 20,000 vehicles per day. The land west of the interchange, across from downtown Findlay, is being rapidly developed, and plans for the area include a Wal-Mart.

Mayor Tony Iriti of Findlay thinks “it’s a great idea. It’s amazing to me that this has never been done before. We’ll be written up in all those magazines nobody wants to read.” Hancock County officials are similarly enthusiastic.

The decision on whether to build the interchange will not be made until late summer.

Why Shampoos Could Be The Most Dangerous Cosmetic Products?

By Katia Chabalina

Cosmetic and medical products that get in contact with our skin are absorbed through the skin, get in the blood stream and can accumulate in high quantities in different parts of our bodies. The absorption of substances from outside the skin to positions beneath the skin, including entrance to the blood stream, is referred to as Percutaneous Absorption. Usually, shampoos contain very aggressive cleaning ingredients that desroy hydrolipidic film. Hydrolipidic film is an emulsion of water (hydro) and fat (lipos). Its main function is an external barrier, a defense against bacteria and fungi. In addition it keeps the skin supple. The cleaning ingredients of shampoos destroy external barrier of the scalp and all the dangerous ingredients found in shampoos enter our bodies.

This is why all cosmetic products not just medical products must be tested for safety.

Hairdressers and estheticians are considered to be at high professional risk, because they come in contact with cosmetic products more than anyone else. Most importantly, there are a lot of different ingredients in cosmetic products, especially shampoos that can be very damaging to our health. In particular, there are lot of ingredients widely used in the cosmetic industry that are not being studied as much as food products and drugs, but they can be very dangerous and carcinogenic (can cause cancer). The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare says the number of cancers being diagnosed each year is growing faster than the overall population. Skin cancer has increased by more than 350% in last five years.

This is why all Allatolia products have been extensively tested and analyzed for safety and clinical effectiveness.

Allatolia products are manufactured without the addition of colorings, perfumes, and thickening ingredients since their origin (1978), because the very high quality of raw materials used allows avoiding any kind of covering. Colors and perfumes are often added to products in order to cover bad quality of raw materials (low quality raw materials often smell very bad). Dermatologists and Allergologists consider perfumes and colors which are added to cosmetic products as the most responsible for contact dermatitis. Contact dermatitis is a localized rash or irritation of the skin caused by contact with a foreign substance. Professionals in the cosmetic field, especially hairdressers are at higher risk for developing irritations and allergic reactions due to the fact that they use cosmetic products all day long.

Allatolia products are made without formaldehyde since the origin (1978). Formaldehyde (or formic aldehyde) is a preservative considered to be very dangerous, although widely used for its low price. Formaldehyde is classified as a probable human carcinogen by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. International Agency for Research on Cancer states that there is sufficient evidence that formaldehyde causes nasopharyngeal cancer in humans. Formaldehyde also causes allergies.

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Under certain dosage the present laws do not yet force producers to declare the presence of formaldehyde. In Switzerland the use of formaldehyde is forbidden for both medicines and cosmetics since 1967. Therefore, the voluntary procedure to submit the products to the composition exam to the laboratories of Swiss Hygiene and the consequent certification of conformity means that, under precise responsibility of the producer, the products are made without formaldehyde. All the certificates that state that all Allatolia products do not contain formaldehyde can be found on our website.

Villa Bofghini products are manufactured without Methylene Chloride since the origin (1978). Methylene Chloride has always been considered as a very dangerous substance for human health. In spite of this, it has been largely used to manufacture hair sprays and hair fixing products mainly because of its low cost and of its high volatility characteristic (it is able to let the other ingredients exhale very quickly, thus allowing to fix hair almost immediately). Obviously, Methylene Chloride and other substances heavily pollute the environment. This bears dangerous consequences to the health of people using such toxic products. Only in 1998 did the European Commission finally classify it as ‘R-40’ meaning dangerous substance able to cause irreversible noxious effects to human health.

Allatolia products have been clinically studied and tested for maximum safety by Repeated Insult Patch Test. All Allatolia products have passed this test. Under normal conditions it takes 28 days for the basal layer of skin cells through their death and physiological transformation to finally reach the skin surface. This is the cycle of the skin, called cellular turnover. This is what allows the skin to have the power of self-defense form anything that comes in contact with it.

There are two clinical-pharmacological tests used to evaluate safety of products for topical application. They are Patch Test and Repeated Insult Patch Test. The Patch Test usually lasts 48 hours. As previously explained, the cellular turnover of the skin lasts 28 days. This means that the product tested only for 2 days cannot be called hypoallergenic, because 2 days are not enough to really test the product. The Repeated Insult Patch Test lasts for 30 days, that is to say two more days of the skin cellular turnover. This is why the product that managed to over come such a rigid test is certified as ‘Incapable of causing irritation or allergic reactions’.

According to the FDA, there are no Federal standards or definitions that govern the use of the term ‘hypoallergenic’. The term means whatever a particular company wants it to mean. Manufacturers of cosmetics labeled as hypoallergenic are not required to submit substantiation of their hypoallergenicity claims to FDA.

Allatolia products have overcome the strictest clinical-pharmacological test in the University Laboratories for Maximum Safety: ‘The Repeated Insult Patch Test’. All Allatolia products are certified as incapable of causing irritation or allergic reactions.

Up to today, Allatolia is the unique whole range of products in the world that was able to overcome the hardest test for maximum safety.

The scalp is at the top of the list among the body parts affected by Allergenic Contact Dermatitis. Shampoos are the most dangerous products, because they destroy the hydrolipidic film of the skin (extreme barrier for the protection of the skin) and that provokes the dangerous rebound effect of the sebaceous gland, and in turn canceling the skin power to self-defense. That is why they are considered to be the most dangerous cosmetic products. For this reason hairdressers are at a higher risk.

Allatolia finished products have been registered and approved by the FDA. The finished product is the result of mixing together various ingredients. Every ingredient has its own characteristics which can be changed by combining it with another ingredient. It is evident that by advertising a product only because it contains a particular ingredient does not show the proved scientific value of the finished product. So, it is very important to test the finished product as well as each ingredient separately. All ALLATOLIA products have been tested as finished products.

For most shampoos, the manufacturing process starts with making a large amount of concentrated shampoo in one shot, and then it is diluted. Allatolia, on the other hand manufactures their shampoos differently. We do it by addition of ingredients to each bottle one by one. We add the ingredients, not dilute a high concentrated solution.

According to the results of the tests and analysis of Allatolia products, the use of Allatolia products allows achieving important clinical results with no side effects.

The whole range of Allatolia products has very advanced scientific characteristics, because we are able to achieve both aesthetic and curative results simultaneously. This is another scientific and technical innovation called Product Dynamism.

The unique distinctive characteristics of Allatolia line shows that Allatolia manufacturing levels and quality of the ingredients were almost 30 years ahead of the modern European Regulations.

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Asylum Law In The United States

By Marcela Devivo

Asylum law is a general term that applies to any person or group who is victimized in their home country and flees to another country or state to escape. Since the Second World War, one of the most prolific admitters of asylum seekers has been the United States. Since 1980, over two million refugees alone have been admitted to the United States.

As one of ten countries accepting asylum seekers and refugees currently in 2006, they have outdone their fellow countries by accepting double the amount of refuges, more than any other participating country to date.

The United States follows international and federal laws regarding asylum, and fully one tenth of asylum seekers have also been refugees admitted into the US. The United State’s practices regarding asylum are set out in a convention from 1951 called the ‘Convention relating to the Status of Refugees.’ Later in 1980, this convention was broadened when congress passed the ‘Refugee act of 1980.’

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According to its protocols, a person is defined as a refugee if they have fled to the US because of the fear or enactment of persecution on protected ground in their home country or a home state that didn’t or couldn’t offer protection.

The laws regarding asylum are enforced by the attorney general and are awarded on the basis of the criteria mentioned above; fear of recrimination for gender or sexual prejudice is included as well. The defendant must establish, however, that they are indeed a victim of persecution in their home country to the satisfaction of the grantor.

Each year, the US sets a ‘refugee ceiling’ which is the number of refugees they’ll permit to immigrate into the US for the duration of that year. The number is subject to the discretion of the government and is usually the focus of anti-immigration groups and pro-refugee lobbyists alike, the former seeking to lower the number and the latter seeking to raise it higher.

There are two different applications potential asylum seekers or refugees must complete; one is the ‘Application for Resettlement by Refugees Abroad’ and the other is the ‘Application for Asylum by Refugees in the United States.’

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High Court of Australia dismisses appeal against conviction, compulsory voting

Wednesday, April 17, 2013 

Last Friday, following over two years of lawsuit over failure to participate in general election, Anders Holmdahl attended a High Full Court of Australia hearing with an audio-link from Canberra to Adelaide, South Australia, claiming voting is a right, not a duty, citing the Australian constitution. However the Justices dismissed the application for leave to appeal against conviction, ruling it had “no prospect of success” over a point that the Commonwealth Electoral Act was enacted within power.

Anders Holmdahl was represented by Kevin Borick, QC, the president of the Australian Criminal Lawyers Association, throughout the process.

Anders Holmdahl cited “fundamental distinction” between the words vote, which he defined as “exercise of free will”; right, “something you are privileged to be granted”; and duty, “something you are required to do”. After a 20-minute discourse with the lawyer representing the applicant, Justice Kenneth Hayne said, “An appeal to this Court would enjoy no prospect of success. Special leave to appeal is refused.” and adjourned the Court. Justices Stephen Gageler, Patrick Keane were also present at the hearing and participated in the verbal discourse, also enquiring the lawyer about their reasoning but not specifying reasons other than what Hayne J said. Wikinews contacted both Anders Holmdahl and the High Court and confirmed there was no other documentation of reasons behind the judgment.

The standard High Court procedures involve hearing each matter by a single Justice and only escalating it after a special leave to appeal is granted. The current case had been irregular, as the matter had been escalated to the Full Court (three Justices) directly.

The appeal also had exhausted lower means of appeal before being lodged in High Court; the Supreme Court of South Australia had dismissed it on September 24, 2012. It cited that the Australian Constitution allows each state to enact their own election laws, and the Federal Parliament has the power to make laws “with respect to … matters in respect of which this Constitution makes provision until the Parliament otherwise provides”. The Court concluded that the Commonwealth Electoral Act was legislation enacted within power.

Prior to escalation to the Supreme Full Court of South Australia, in May 2012, a single Justice Gray had forwarded the matter for consideration of Full Court (three Judges) at his discretion. This happened several months after a Magistrate had recorded the conviction following a trial in February 2012. Anders Holmdahl originally pleaded not guilty during his first Magistrates court appearance in December 2011 regarding the August 21, 2010 election.

The electoral system of Australia requires all citizens to enroll. Then they must vote at each general election — election of members of the House of Representatives and Senate of the Parliament of Australia. At the time of the election, Anders Holmdahl was enrolled as an elector on the Commonwealth Electoral Roll for the Division of Hindmarsh.

The High Full Court hearing was a last instance of appeal with further escalation only possible at international level. Anders Holmdahl had decided to take the case before the United Nations Human Rights Council.

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